Berthault, Patrick, Céline Boutin, Charlotte Martineau-Corcos, and Guillaume Carret. “Use of Dissolved Hyperpolarized Species in NMR: Practical Considerations.” Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 118–119 (June 2020): 74–90.
Hyperpolarization techniques that can transiently boost nuclear spin polarization are generally carried out at low temperature – as in the case of dynamic nuclear polarization – or at high temperature in the gaseous state – as in the case of optically pumped noble gases. This review aims at describing the various issues and challenges that have been encountered during dissolution of hyperpolarized species, and solutions to these problems that have been or are currently proposed in the literature. During the transport of molecules from the polarizer to the NMR detection region, and when the hyperpolarized species or a precursor of hyperpolarization (e.g. parahydrogen) is introduced into the solution of interest, several obstacles need to be overcome to keep a high level of ﬁnal magnetization. The choice of the magnetic ﬁeld, the design of the dissolution setup, and ways to isolate hyperpolarized compounds from relaxation agents will be presented. Due to the non-equilibrium character of the hyperpolarization, new NMR pulse sequences that perform better than the classical ones will be described. Finally, three applications in the ﬁeld of biology will be brieﬂy mentioned.