Dollmann, B.C., et al., Spin-Labeled Heparins as Polarizing Agents for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. ChemPhysChem, 2010. 11(17): p. 3656-3663
A potentially biocompatible class of spin-labeled macromolecules, spin-labeled (SL) heparins, and their use as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal enhancers are introduced. The signal enhancement is achieved through Overhauser-type dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). All presented SL-heparins show high 1H DNP enhancement factors up to E=−110, which validates that effectively more than one hyperfine line can be saturated even for spin-labeled polarizing agents. The parameters for the Overhauser-type DNP are determined and discussed. A striking result is that for spin-labeled heparins, the off-resonant electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) hyperfine lines contribute a non-negligible part to the total saturation, even in the absence of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and electron spin-nuclear spin relaxation (T1ne). As a result, we conclude that one can optimize the use of, for example, biomacromolecules for DNP, for which only small sample amounts are available, by using heterogeneously distributed radicals attached to the molecule.