M. D. Lingwood et al., Solution-State Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, Annu. Rev. NMR Spec., 2011, 73, 83-126
Solution-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is an increasingly popular method of enhancing nuclear spin polarization that has many applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The theory, methods and applications of DNP in the solution state using the Overhauser effect are distinctly different from those of solid-state DNP or what is known as dissolution DNP. This review discusses the theory and recent experimental advances of Overhauser DNP techniques in the solution state at various field strengths ranging from the earth’s magnetic field to 9.2 T, covering the literature from 1986 to late 2010. Most of the focus in this review is on spectroscopy applications of DNP, although proton–electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) and remotely enhanced liquids for imaging contrast (RELIC) applications are briefly covered.