Mett, Richard R., Jason W. Sidabras, James R. Anderson, Candice S. Klug, and James S. Hyde. “Rutile Dielectric Loop-Gap Resonator for X-Band EPR Spectroscopy of Small Aqueous Samples.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 307 (October 2019): 106585.
The performance of a metallic microwave resonator that contains a dielectric depends on the separation between metallic and dielectric surfaces, which affects radio frequency currents, evanescent waves, and polarization charges. The problem has previously been discussed for an X-band TE011 cylindrical cavity resonator that contains an axial dielectric tube (Hyde and Mett, 2017). Here, a short rutile dielectric tube inserted into a loop-gap resonator (LGR) at X-band, which is called a dielectric LGR (dLGR), is considered. The theory is developed and experimental results are presented. It was found that a central sample loop surrounded by four ‘‘ﬂux-return” loops (i.e., 5-loop–4-gap) is preferable to a 3-loop–2-gap conﬁguration. For sufﬁciently small samples (less than 1 mL), a rutile dLGR is preferred relative to an LGR both at constant K (B1= Pl) and at constant incident power. Introduction of LGR technology to X-band EPR was a signiﬁcant advance for site-directed spin labeling because of small sample size and high K. The rutile dLGR introduced in this work offers further extension to samples that can be as small as 50 nL when using typical EPR acquisition times.