What is a Gyrotron?

A gyrotron is a vacuum electronic device (VED) capable to generate high-power, high-frequency THz radiation. A gyrotron’s operation is based on the stimulated cyclotron radiation of electrons oscillating in a strong magnetic field typically provided by a superconducting magnet. A schematic, indicating the various parts of a gyrotron tube is given below. In a gyrotron, […]

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The Development of DNP-NMR

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) uses the large thermal polarization of the electron spin reservoir of a paramagnetic polarizing agent to provide a sensitivity boost for NMR experiments—by several orders of magnitude. In a DNP experiment, the electron polarization is transferred to the nuclei by microwave/terahertz radiation of its electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) transition. The technique […]

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How to Upgrade Your NMR Spectrometers for DNP

You will need four components to upgrade your NMR spectrometer to conduct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP-NMR): High-power, high-frequency terahertz source Low-loss transmission line NMR probe that allows simultaneous terahertz and radio-frequency irradiation Polarizing agent as the source of the high thermal electron polarization  Terahertz Source The efficiency of a DNP experiment depends strongly on the […]

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How does Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP-NMR) work?

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is a technique that utilizes the large Boltzman polarization of the electron spin reservoir to provide a boost in NMR signal intensities by several orders of magnitude; thus increasing the data acquisition rate in a NMR experiment dramatically (1,2). In a DNP experiment the large electron polarization of a polarizing agent […]

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What are terahertz waves?

Electromagnetic waves at terahertz (THz) frequencies are in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 0.3 and 3 THz. Terahertz waves are safe to use because they are non-ionizing and can pass through clothing, skin, paper, cardboard and plastic, wood, plastic and ceramics. They can also penetrate fog and clouds, but cannot penetrate metal, concrete […]

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What is Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP-NMR)?

Researchers can use dynamic nuclear polarization to boost signal intensities in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, a technique known as DNP-NMR. NMR spectroscopy is an important technique for the determination of structures in material science and structural biology. However, its major drawback is the inherent low sensitivity of the method due to the small magnetic moment […]

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