Albert, Brice J., Chukun Gao, Erika L. Sesti, Edward P. Saliba, Nicholas Alaniva, Faith J. Scott, Snorri Th. Sigurdsson, and Alexander B. Barnes. “Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Human Cells Using Fluorescent Polarizing Agents.” Biochemistry 57, no. 31 (August 7, 2018): 4741–46.
Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) enables atomic-resolution characterization of the molecular structure and dynamics within complex heterogeneous samples, but it is typically insensitive. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) increases the NMR signal intensity by orders of magnitude and can be performed in combination with magic angle spinning (MAS) for sensitive, high-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report MAS DNP experiments, for the ﬁrst time, within intact human cells with >40-fold DNP enhancement and a sample temperature of <6 K. In addition to cryogenic MAS results at <6 K, we also show in-cell DNP enhancements of 57-fold at 90 K. In-cell DNP is demonstrated using biradicals and sterically shielded monoradicals as polarizing agents. A novel trimodal polarizing agent is introduced for DNP, which contains a nitroxide biradical, a targeting peptide for cell penetration, and a ﬂuorophore for subcellular localization with confocal microscopy. The ﬂuorescent polarizing agent provides in-cell DNP enhancements of 63-fold at a concentration of 2.7 mM. These experiments pave the way for structural characterization of biomolecules in an endogenous cellular context.