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One way to overcome the intrinsically low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is to enhance the signal by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), where the polarization of high-gyromagnetic ratio (γ) electrons is transferred to the surrounding nuclei using microwave (MW) irradiation. Recent developments in DNP instrumentations and applications have shown that DNP is one of the most effective methods to increase the nuclear spin polarization in inorganic, organic, and biological materials. It is possible to obtain a solution of molecules containing hyperpolarized nuclei in combination with methods to dissolve rapidly the polarized solid sample. In this chapter, a brief introduction on a theoretical basis and some of new DNP applications in NMR spectroscopy as well as medical applications in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are described.