Ito, S. and F. Hyodo, Dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging at low ESR irradiation frequency for ascorbyl free radicals. Scientific Reports, 2016. 6: p. 21407.
Highly water-soluble ubiquinone-0 (CoQ0) reacts with ascorbate monoanion (Asc) to mediate the production of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR). Using aqueous reaction mixture of CoQ0 and Asc, we obtained positively enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-magnetic resonance (MR) images of the AFR at low frequency (ranging from 515 to 530 MHz) of electron spin resonance (ESR) irradiation. The shape of the determined DNP spectrum was similar to ESR absorption spectra with doublet spectral peaks. The relative locational relationship of spectral peaks in the DNP spectra between the AFR (520 and 525 MHz), 14N-labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL (14N-CmP) (526.5 MHz), and Oxo63 (522 MHz) was different from that in the X-band ESR spectra, but were similar to that in the 300-MHz ESR spectra. The ratio of DNP enhancement to radical concentration for the AFR was higher than those for 14N-CmP, Oxo63, and flavin semiquinone radicals. The spectroscopic DNP properties observed for the AFR were essentially the same as those for AFR mediated by pyrroloquinoline quinone. Moreover, we made a success of in vivo DNP-MR imaging of the CoQ0-mediated AFR which was administered by the subcutaneous and oral injections as an imaging probe.