Dipolar nuclear polarization via the spin diffusion of a dipole order #DNPNMR

Furman, G.B., S.D. Goren, V.M. Meerovich, and V.L. Sokolovsky. “Dipolar Nuclear Polarization via the Spin Diffusion of a Dipole Order.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 320 (November 2020): 106847.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2020.106847

We propose transfer of the paramagnetic impurity (PI) polarization to nuclei in bulk, outside the diffusion barrier, by using dipolar system of the nuclear spins. The transfer can overcome influence of the diffusion barrier and is proposed to be implemented in four stages. At the first stage, transition of the Zeeman PI order to the Zeeman order of nuclear spins inside the spin-diffusion barrier is occurred. During the second stage the Zeeman order of both the nuclear spins inside the barrier and the nuclear spins in bulk is transferred into the nuclear dipolar spin order. As a result, the nuclear dipolar spin reservoir inside the barrier acquires a lower spin temperature, and thus a gradient of the spin temperature of the nuclear dipolar spin system is created. Since the external magnetic field and the magnetic field created by PIs do not effect on the dipole-dipole interaction between the nuclear spins, the dipolar reservoir is common for all nuclear spins, both inside and outside the diffusion barrier. Restriction of the diffusion barrier is removed and the spin diffusion of the dipole energy and transfer of the spin dipolar order to bulk spins occurs without obstacles (the third stage). At the last stage, to register an NMR signal, the dipolar order of the bulk spins is transferred into the Zeeman order of these spins. Estimations show that enhancement of the polarization can reaches in the case of a 1H nuclear spin, ~220, for 13C ~850, and for 15N ~2130.

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