Category Archives: Products

Bridge12 Electron Guns – Vacuum Electron Devices Tailored to Fit Your Needs

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The electron guns is an essential component in all vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) such as accelerators, gyrotrons, traveling-wave-tubes, and x-ray tubes. Their function is to produce a narrow, collimated electron beam with a precise kinetic energy, which can be used to ionize particles, stimulate the emission of x-rays, or deliver heat in a vacuum furnace.

Bridge12 develops electron guns for a variety of applications, including microwave tubes, X-ray sources, accelerator applications, and more. We can provide prototype electron guns based on your electron beam requirements, including a full-physics and electrical design. We also work with customers from research laboratories and universities who want an implementation of their electrical design, which is often provided as electrode shapes. We utilize a combination of electrostatic and magnetic focusing systems to achieve the right beam parameters for your requirement.

Made by professionals using state-of-the-art tools and facilities.

Currently, electron guns for VEDs are largely built on a one-off basis, resulting in costly designs and long lead times. Furthermore, there is only a very small selection of vendors that can fabricate these devices. Our experienced team of scientists and engineers at Bridge12 has streamlined the design process significantly by using state-of-the-art design and fabrication methods. We utilize industry bench-marked tools for electromagnetic and mechanical finite element-based simulations, optimize electrode poles, and to perform a complete thermal analysis. Our electron guns are fabricated in-house, where we have special facilities for testing dielectric strength, DC emissions, and customized performance testing. All of our electron guns are baked-out at temperatures of up to 450 °C on our in-house exhaust station, as necessary for industrial applications.

Bridge12 specializes in Magnetron Injection Guns (MIGs) for gyrotrons, linear or sheet beam guns for traveling wave tubes (TWTs), high power microwave (HPM) devices, and accelerator systems. Some of the recent electron guns manufactured by Bridge12 for our customers include a 65 kV, 7 A Magnetron Injection Gun for a millimeter wave gyrotron, a 20 kV, 0.25 A gun for terahertz gyrotron and a 12 kV, 40 mA sheet beam electron gun for use in a terahertz traveling-wave-tube.

Working with customers to create the perfect prototype or production design

Bridge12 can verify customer-provided electrical designs and optimize the design for mechanical implementation, or we can design the magnetic focusing system necessary for beam transport to match customer provided mechanical constraints. We develop one-off prototypes as well as models equipped for serial production. The interfaces can be either weld flanges or demountable CF flanges. An integrated and isolated ion pump can be provided for long term storage of the gun assembly or for use during operation.

Recently Fabricated Models:

Model Number Voltage Current Type
B121TMID095K 65 kV 7 A MIG for 100 kW, mm-wave gyrotrons
B12TMIG198W 20 kV 0.25 A MIG for 100 W terahertz gyrotrons
B12TSBG300U 12 kV 0.035 A Sheet Beam Gun for terahertz TWT

Related Products: Gyrotrons, TWTs, Accelerators, X-Ray Sources

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X-Band ODNP Resonator

High-Resolution ODNP Spectroscopy

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Related Product:  X-Band Microwave Source for ODNP

Overhauser DNP Spectroscopy

Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) enhanced NMR spectroscopy at 9 GHz (0.35 T, 15 MHz 1H NMR frequency) is a powerful method for site-specific studies of hydration dynamics at or near bio-macromolecules, membrane proteins, or other solid/liquid interfaces [1, 2]. In addition ODNP can be used to enhance the signal intensity in low-field NMR spectroscopy. Although the method has been known since the 1960s, it has just recently been successfully applied in structural biology and material science. The unique instrumentation requirements had previously limited the application of ODNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy, specifically the lack of commercially available microwave sources and DNP resonators.

Upgrade your existing EPR Spectrometer

Unlike high-field DNP-enhanced solid- state NMR experiments, ODNP experiments at 9 GHz do not require a large superconducting NMR magnet or a high-power/high-frequency microwave source such as a gyrotron. In fact, any X-band EPR spectrometer can be easily upgraded with Bridge12 products for ODNP spectroscopy.

A turn-key ODNP resonatorfor your research

The Bridge12 ODNP resonator is compatible with any commercial or home-built X-band EPR spectrometer and can be installed just like any other resonator. The position of the integrated NMR coil is optimized to minimize interference with the microwave electromagnetic fields to achieve a high-Q resonator. This results in a high conversion factor and minimizes sample heating, even when using very high microwave power.

High conversion factor, minimal sample heating

The Bridge12 ODNP resonator is based on a dielectric resonator with a conversion factor > 3 G/√W and a loaded Q > 4000. Little microwave power is required to fully saturate the EPR signal. This is especially important for sample with high dielectric losses (e.g. water), to minimize the microwave induced sample heating. The sample is loaded either into a quartz sample tube (2 mm OD, 1 mm ID) or into a small sample capillary (0.84 mm OD, 0.6 mm ID).

X-Band ODNP spectrum of ethyl crotonate

Observe 1H or 19F or any nucleus you desire

The Bridge12 ODNP resonator has an integrated saddle coil with a single channel NMR circuit. Depending upon your application, the probe can be tuned to observe 1H, 19F, 2H, 13C or any other nucleus you are interested in.

Technical Specifications

  • X-Band Dielectric resonator(unloaded Q ~ 6900)
  • NMR Frequency: 14.5 +/- 0.5 MHz(other frequencies available).
  • Typical pulse length 1 us @ 10 W RF power
  • Maximum Sample Diameter: 2mm
  • Probe requires flow of clean, dry air (> 5 lpm)

Literature

[1] Franck, J.M., et al., Quantitative cw Overhauser Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for The Analysis of Local Water Dynamics, Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc., 2013, 74(0), p. 33-56.

[2] Kaminker, I., Barnes, R., Han, Songi, Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Studies on Local Water Dynamics, Meth. Enzym., 2015, 564, p. 457-483.

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OpenVnmrJ for ODNP Spectroscopy

Control single-board NMR spectrometers with OpenVnmrJ

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Related Product:  X-Band Microwave Source for ODNP

Overhauser DNP Spectroscopy

Overhauser enhanced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) spectroscopy in general requires a microwave source, an ODNP resonator and an NMR spectrometer. Low-field ODNP spectroscopy is typically performed at a magnetic field of 0.35 T, corresponding to an NMR frequency of ~15 MHz for protons. While many laboratories rely on home-built ODNP equipment, they often use a commercial (high-field) NMR spectrometer to record the NMR spectrum. However, these spectrometers come with significant overhead and are no cost-effective solutions to ODNP resulting in a large, unnecessary investments.

An ODNP Microwave Source with Integrated NMR Spectrometer

ODNP experiments performed at 0.35 T require an NMR spectrometer operating at 15 MHz to observe protons. A single-board NMR spectrometer such as the RadioProcessor Board (SpinCore Technologies, Inc., Gainesville, FL USA) is a cost-effective solution and sufficient for most ODNP experiments. This integrated NMR spectrometer is now available as an additional option for our Microwave Power Source (Bridge12 MPS).

OpenVnmrJ

OpenVnmrJ for ODNP

Many researchers that are interested in ODNP spectroscopy come out of the NMR community but are often unfamiliar with the additional microwave equipment. In collaboration with Open VnmrJ Solutions, the team at Bridge12 Technologies, Inc. has developed a variant of OpenVnmrJ that is tailored towards ODNP spectroscopy to lower the entry barrier.

OpenVnmrJ is the Open Source variant of the highly successful VnmrJ 4.2 acquisition and processing software that many Varian/Agilent NMR users are familiar with. It offers the benefits of a state-of-the-art NMR acquisition and processing software, while maintaining the required flexibility to control auxiliary equipment such as the microwave source. The specific version of OpenVnmrJ and its functions to operate a single-board NMR spectrometer are released as Open Source to make it available to entire research community. OpenVnmrJ is the Open Source version of VnmrJ version 4.2. In 2015, Agilent agreed to transfer the copyright of VnmrJ 4.2 to the University of Oregon. The software is available through the OpenVnmrJ project hosted on GitHub.

If you would like to receive more information on OpenVnmrJ and its support of single-board NMR spectrometers do no hesitate to contact us a info@bridge12.com.

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Cryogenic Heat Exchanger

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Counterflow Heat Exchanger forCryogenic NMR Spectroscopy

Many areas of NMR spectroscopy require the ability to study a sample at different temperatures. Specifically in solid-state NMR spectroscopy conducting experiments at low-temperatures allows characterizing the dynamic properties of the sample. Gas chillers are often used to create a variable temperature (VT) gas stream to cool the sample. However, the lowest temperature these devices typically can achieve is about -90ºC (183 K). To achieve lower temperatures typically a dry nitrogen gas stream that is cooled in a heat exchanger using liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used.

Different design for heat exchangers have been developed over the years, with the most common one using copper coils immersed in liquid nitrogen. But, this design has a massive drawback. At high flow rates, which require increased gas pressures, the VT gas is easily liquified inside the immersion coils. This leads to a discontinous gas flow. In the worst case scenario, LN2 will sputter out of the VT line and onto the rotor. This can easily cause instabilities of the rotor rotor crashes.

A counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient sample cooling

Schematic of the cryogenic counterflow heat exchanger

Unlike using immersion coils to cool the VT gas, the Bridge12 heat exchanger employes two gas streams that flow in opposite directions. In one direction, a vacuum pump pulls liquid nitrogen through a capillary from a storage dewar into the heat exchanger. The LN2 evaporates and the cold nitrogen gas cools the VT gas, which is travelling in the opposite direction. Depending on the vacuum and therefore the amount of LN2 pulled through the capillary, the temperature of the VT gas can be controlled from room temperature (RT) down to < 90 K. The storage dewar is not pressurized, and refilling the dewar can be done at any time. The entire heat exchanger assembly is thermally insulated to guarantee efficient operation and minimal cryogen consumption.

1.8 l/hr LN2 to maintain a VT temperature of 86 K

The heat exchanger is designed to operate very efficiently. At the lowest temperature of 86 K, and a VT gas flow rate of 50 scfh (23.6 l/min) only 1.8 l/hr of LN2 is consumed, corresponding to about 45 scfh (21.2 l/min) of nitrogen gas and a 50 l storage dewar is sufficient for 24+ hrs of operation. The output temperature of the VT gas can be regulated by adjusting the VT gas flow rate and the amount of liquid nitrogen pulled by the vacuum (see back page). Once a stable flow rate is established, fluctuations are very small. To accurately set and stabilize the VT gas temperature, the built-in heater element of the NMR probe is used.

Flexible design

The Bridge12 counterflow heat exchanger has a very flexible design to accommodate an individual researcher’s requirements. It can be equipped with a cryogenic bayonet fitting to connect individual transfer lines (as shown in the photograph). Alternately, the heat exchanger can be equipped with a transfer line directly connecting to the NMR probe. Optionally, an LN2 level sensor is available to monitor the cryogen level inside the storage dewar and to aide automatic refills for long-term operation.

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X-Band ODNP Probe

Large NMR Enhancements for Aqueous Samples

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Related Product:  X-Band Microwave Source for ODNP

Overhauser DNP Spectroscopy

Microwave resonator tuning (Varian TE102) with ODNP probe installed.

Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) enhanced NMR spectroscopy at 9 GHz (0.35 T, 15 MHz 1H NMR frequency) is a powerful method for site-specific studies of the accessibility and translational dynamics of water molecules at or near bio-macromolecules, membrane proteins, or other interfaces such as polymer/solvent interfaces [1, 2]. Although the method has been around since the 1960s, it has just recently been successfully applied in structural biology and material science. The unique instrumentation requirements had previously limited the application of ODNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy, specifically the lack of commercially available microwave sources and DNP probes that are compatible with existing EPR instrumentation.

Upgrade your existing EPR Spectrometer

Unlike high-field DNP-enhanced solid- state NMR experiments ODNP experiments 9 GHz do not require a large superconducting NMR magnet or a high-power/high-frequency microwave source such as a gyrotron. In fact, any home-built or commercially available X-band EPR spectrometer, instruments that can be found in many academic research institutes, can be easily upgraded with Bridge12 products to do ODNP specroscopy.

 

1H ODNP enhancements of 4-amino TEMPO in Water

A turn-key ODNP probe for your research

The Bridge12 ODNP probe can be easily installed in a conventional X-band EPR cavity (e.g. Bruker 4102ST or Varian E231) and it comes with all necessary adapter parts to mount the probe. The positions of the NMR coil wires are optimized and the Q of the EPR cavity is only minimally affected. This conserves the high conversion factor of the EPR probe and minimizes sample heating even when using very high microwave power.

Change the sample, not the probe

The Bridge12 ODNP probe has a simple and convenient system to change the sample. Once the probe is mounted inside the EPR cavity and its position is optimized the probe will stay inside the EPR cavity and the probe does not have to be removed to change the sample. The sample can be loaded either into a quartz sample tube (2 mm OD, 1 mm ID) or into a small sample capillary (0.84 mm OD, 0.6 mm ID). The probe comes with sample holders for both options.

19F ODNP enhancement of 4-amino TEMPO in 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol

1H ODNP enhancements of 4-amino TEMPO in WaterObserve 1H or 19F or any nucleus you desire

The Bridge12 ODNP probe is a single channel NMR probe. Depending on your application the probe can be tuned to observe 1H, 19F, 2H, 13C or any other nucleus you are interested in.

 

 

 

 

 

ODNP Enhancement Profile of 4-amino Tempo in Water

1H ODNP Enhancement Profile

All RF tuning elements are conveniently located at the front of the probe. That makes it very easy to tune the probe to a new frequency and for example DNP enhancement profiles are recorded in a very short amount of time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Technical Specifications

  • Technical Specifications Operating NMR Frequency: 14.5 +/- 0.5 MHz (other frequencies available)
  • Sample Size: Probe works very well with 2 mm sample tubes (Wilmad 712-SQ-250 mm or 0.84 mm capillaries (e.g. VitroCom CV6084-Q).
  • Maximum sample diameter 2.5 mm. Probes for larger sample sizes (non aqueous) are available.
  • Sample holder and probe mounts included.
  • Probe requires EPR cavity, e.g. Bruker 4102ST (TE102), 4119HS, 4122HSQE or ER4123D (TE011-like), or Varian E231 (TE102) for X-Band operation (Other frequencies available)
  • Unloaded resonator Q with probe installed: > 3100 For optimum performance probe requires flow of clean, dry air (> 5 lpm)

[1] Franck, J.M., et al., Quantitative cw Overhauser Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for The Analysis of Local Water Dynamics, Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc., 2013, 74(0), p. 33-56.

[2] Kaminker, I., Barnes, R., Han, Songi, Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Studies on Local Water Dynamics, Meth. Enzym., 2015, 564, p. 457-483.

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Resistive Sweep Coil for NMR Magnets

Resistive sweep coil for NMR magnets

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The Bridge12 RSC is a resistive sweep coil for researchers who want to change the magnetic field strength in their NMR, DNP or EPR experiments. It can be retrofitted into wide-bore NMR magnets at a fraction of the cost of built-in sweep coils.

Sweep or adjust the magneticfield strength

Typically magnetic resonance experiments are performed at a fixed magnetic field strength because it is not easy to change the main field of a superconducting magnet. However, frequency sweeps are not always possible and sweeping the magnetic field strength is the sometimes the only alternative:

  • In DNP experiments with fixed-frequency microwave sources, researchers may want to characterize new polarizing agents. This either requires an EPR spectrometer operating at the same frequency as the DNP spectrometer or the ability to sweep the magnetic field strength.
  • Low-power DNP experiments using a resonator benefit from lower cost microwave sources but frequency sweeps are not possible due to the fixed frequency of the resonator. Sweeping the magnetic field strength is the only option to conduct measurements.
  • Scientists building an EPR spectrometer can save costs by using an NMR magnet and retrofitting it with a resistive sweep coil to enable magnetic field strength sweeping.

Sweep range of +/- 400 Gauss

The Bridge12 RSC is able to sweep the magnetic field strength by +/- 400 Gauss, enabling you to cover many radicals.

Great savings compared to built-in superconducting sweep coils

An integrated superconducting sweep coil can easily add about 25 to 50 % or more to the price of the superconducting magnet. The Bridge12 RSC can add the ability to sweep the magnetic field strength to an existing wide-bore magnet at a fraction of the cost. The Bridge12 RSC is compatible with existing instrumentation, including wide-bore superconducting magnets and low-temperature cryostats for wide-bore NMR probes.

 

Technical Specifications

  • Sweep Range: +/- 400 G
  • Field Homogeneity: +/- 1 ppm over 10 mm
  • Outer diameter: 88.5 mm
  • Inner Diameter: 69 mm (models with larger ID available)
  • Length: 455 mm
  • Cooling: Water cooling required (recirculation chiller recommended but not included)
  • Temperature monitor to prevent overheating included.

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High Frequency EPR Spectrometer for DNP

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Add EPR to your DNP & NMR Systems

The Bridge12 EPR Spectrometer is a shoebox-sized system that enables researchers to upgrade:

  • Gyrotron-based DNP systems to conduct EPR measurements (Option A)
  • NMR systems to conduct low-temperature DNP and EPR measurements on static samples (Option B)

By eliminating the need for additional superconducting magnets, Bridge12 can deliver this capability at a fraction of the cost of conventional systems.

Option A: Optimize DNP sensitivity with EPR measurements

In DNP-NMR spectroscopy, it can be difficult to choose the right polarizing agents (e.g. radicals, metal centers), without knowing their Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Researchers may get some sensitivity gain out of a DNP experiment even under non-optimal conditions, but they may forfeit much larger gains that could dramatically improve their results. EPR spectroscopy helps determine the optimal variables for maximizing sensitivity. Conducting high-field (HF) DNP experiments requires HF-EPR spectroscopy because inferring results from other frequencies is extremely prone to errors. While low-field EPR spectrometers are pervasive, HF-EPR spectrometers are hard to build and expensive to buy.

The Bridge12 EPR spectrometer provides EPR capabilities for gyrotron-based DNP systems at a fraction of the cost by eliminating the need for a second superconducting magnet.

Option A requires three main components: 1) the NMR spectrometer, 2) the transmission line, and 3) the gyrotron. The transmission line links the gyrotron to the DNP probe and typically an overmoded, corrugated waveguide is used to minimize transmission losses.

Bridge12 also offers a connection kit to connect the EPR spectrometer to an existing DNP-NMR spectrometer.

Option B: Conduct low-temperature DNP and EPR on static samples

Buying a new high-field EPR spectrometer is often out of financial reach for most research groups. With the Bridge12 EPR Spectrometer, scientists can upgrade their existing instrumentation – for example a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer with basic EPR capabilities. This adds low-temperature DNP and EPR measurements on static samples to their analytical methods – at a fraction of the cost of a new gyrotron-based DNP-NMR system.

The EPR spectrometer has an integrated solid-state THz source with an output power of > 80 mW at 263 GHz. In combination with a flow cryostat (e.g. Model STVP-NMR from Janis) this is sufficient power for DNP experiments at 40 K and below.

As Option B, the spectrometer operates at frequencies up to 328 GHz (500 MHz, 1H NMR).

Save cost of additional magnets and fit system into any lab space

Current high-field EPR spectrometer designs have many features that are often not required to gain some basic understanding of the EPR properties of the DNP-NMR sample. As a result high-field EPR spectrometers often fill an entire room and require their own expensive superconducting magnet. Limiting the number of superconducting magnets also lowers your operating costs by reducing the consumption of coolants, such as liquid nitrogen and helium.

The Bridge12 EPR Spectrometer has the size of a shoebox and can eliminate the need for an additional magnet by using your existing instrumentation. The instrument features state-of-the-art microwave/THz and quasi-optical technology. It is available in different configurations such as homodyne or full super-heterodyne detection and allows for reflection and induction mode detection. For time domain measurements the system can be equipped with a high speed digitizer for full pulse operation.

Technical Specifications

  • Operation Frequency: 95, 200, 263, 395 GHz (other frequencies available)
  • Output power: > 80 mW at 263 GHz (available output power strongly depends on the operation frequency)
  • Detection: Homodyne or super-heterodyne detection (time domain detection available)
  • Full computer control

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Microwave Source for X-Band ODNP Experiments

Microwave Source for ODNP-Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy

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Online Documentation

Related Product: X-Band ODNP Probe

Overhauser DNP Spectroscopy

Bridge12 X-Band microwave source for ODNP experiments

Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) enhanced NMR spectroscopy at 9 GHz (0.35 T, 15 MHz 1H NMR frequency) is a powerful method for site-specific studies of the accessibility and translational dynamics of water molecules at or near bio-macromolecules, membrane proteins, or polymer/solvent interfaces [1,2]. Although the method has been in practice since the 1960s, it has just recently been successfully applied in structural biology and material science. The unique instrumentation requirements previously limited the application of ODNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy, specifically the lack of commercially available microwave sources and DNP probes that are compatible with existing EPR instrumentation.

Upgrade any existing EPR Spectrometer

Unlike high-field DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR experiments, ODNP -enhanced NMR spectroscopy at 9 GHz does not require a large superconducting NMR magnet or a gyrotron as the microwave source. In fact, any commercially availabe or home-built X-band EPR spectrometer, often found in academic spectroscopy facilities, can be easily upgraded with ODNP capabilities.

A turn-key microwave source for you to focus on your research

The Bridge12 MPS 9 GHz is an easy-to-use X-band microwave source for ODNP spectroscopy. The maximum output power of commercially available, state-of-the-art EPR spectrometer is typically limited to < 300 mW, which is insufficient to drive the ODNP effect into saturation.

The Bridge12 MPS is a simple add-on for existing EPR spectrometers and can deliver up to 10 W of microwave power to the sample. The system features easy-to-use front panel operation, a concise design, and several failsafe features to protect your sample and your EPR instrumentation. You don’t have to be an expert in microwave technology to operate this system. Instead of troubleshooting home-built instrumentation, keep the focus on your research. Simply set the correct microwave frequency and output power, enable the microwave output, and start recording ODNP-enhanced NMR spectra. For more advanced users, the system features an optional external trigger to modulate the microwave power directly from the NMR console, and a USB interface for deeper integration of the source into the target application.

Easy to operate user interface

The Bridge12 MPS features a simple and concise user interface. A large, five inch front panel display is designed to show only the important values in an easy-to-read font size, even from a distance. Users can switch between the default screen and an advanced screen for more operation parameters.

A modular platform with many additional options

The Bridge12 MPS has a modular design, which can be upgraded with various features. The unit has a front panel SMA breakout for users who would like to add external components such as fast microwave switches, or mixers for pulse shaping (e.g. AWG).

The system has an integrated power detector to constantly monitor the forward and reflected microwave power and also disables the microwave power once the reflected power exceeds a certain level. Additional tuning/matching features can be added to display the cavity tuning in real time.

Five additional digital input/output lines can be individually programmed for user-specific functions. For example, the instrument can be configured to run through a predefined power schedule, to fully automate ODNP experiments.

ODNP connection kit

Bridge12 offers a connection kit for seamlessly integrating the ODNP microwave source and probe into existing EPR instrumentation. This allows a user to simply switch back and forth between EPR and DNP operation. The kit includes a waveguide switch that can be operated manually or automatically to ensure the safety of your EPR equipment.

Integrated NMR spectrometer

The system can be equipped with a single-channel, compact NMR spectrometer. The system is entirely controlled using OpenVnmrJ. For more information take a look here.

The Bridge12 MPS for ODNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy is also available for experiments at K (24 GHz) and Q (35 GHz) band.

[1] Franck, J.M., et al., Quantitative cw Overhauser effect dynamic nuclear polarization for the analysis of local water dynamics. Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc., 2013. 74(0): p. 33-56.

[2] Franck, J. M., and Songi Han. “Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for the Study of Hydration Dynamics, Explained.” In Methods in Enzymology, 615:131–75.

Technical Specifications

  • Frequency Range: 8.5 – 11.5 GHz (also available for Q and K-band spectrometers)
  • Maximum Output power: 5 or 10 W (cw). Continuous attenuation in steps of 0.01 dB
  • Operation: Front Panel operation. Digital interface (USB) for remote operation (optional)
  • TTL pulse modulation (optional): 100 ns minimum pulse length, 50 % minimum duty cycle (shorter pulses available).
  • Temperature monitor and safety switch to prevent overheating of the amplifier.
  • System size (W x H x D): 12 x 7 x 14 (inch), 30.5 x 17.8 x 35.6 (cm)
  • System weight: 3.3 lbs (1.5 kg)
  • Input power: 110 – 220 V (50/60 Hz)

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Bridge12 FMS – Frequency Measuring System for THz Sources

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The Bridge12 FMS is a precision frequency measurement system to measure and track the output frequency of terahertz (THz) sources, such as traveling wave tubes (TWTs) or gyrotrons. The Bridge12 FMS enables a user to:

  • Measure the frequency of most THz sources
  • Track a gyrotron’s or TWT’s output frequency throughout the duration of an experiment
  • Troubleshoot DNP-NMR and other experiments to eliminate frequency issues

Complete your experiment successfully and on time

Whether you’ve built your own THz source or are using a commercial device, gyrotrons and TWTs are sensitive instruments that can change their frequency even due to simple fluctuations of the room temperature. Troubleshooting an experiment can be challenging when you don’t have a way to measure THz radiation.

The Bridge12 FMS helps you eliminate a common source of errors from your experiments so you can complete your measurements successfully and on time.

Focus on your core expertise: Your research

As a scientist, you are tempted to build your own instrumentation. The question to ask yourself is whether this is the fastest way to complete your primary goal – your research. Developing a homegrown system can sidetrack you from your main projects and make it difficult to train other team members to run or even maintain equipment. Building a system for the first time may turn out to be more expensive than an off-the-shelf device.

The Bridge12 FMS is a turn-key frequency measurement system enabling you to focus on your actual work. Being well documented and supported, the system can be deployed quickly between experiments to ensured that research isn’t impacted even as specialists leave your group. Bridge12’s custom software automates the entire frequency search and completes the process in seconds. The compact hardware replaces a rack full of precision and expensive instrumentation hardware in the laboratory.

A heterodyne receiver with a broad frequency range

The Bridge12 FMS is a heterodyne receiver based on a sub-harmonic mixer that can measure frequencies from about 26 GHz up to 500 GHz, depending on the configuration of the front end.

The system uses a high-precision, internal, tunable LO microwave source. The input signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF), which is amplified prior to being recorded by the built-in spectrum analyzer.

To determine the unknown frequency of the THz source (RF) the frequency of the local oscillator (LO) is tuned such that the n-th harmonic of the harmonic mixer down-converts the incoming signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) within the IF bandwidth of the Bridge12 FMS. This signal is then measured in real-time using an internal spectrum analyzer.

Simple Control Software for Measuring and Tracking

The Bridge12 FMS comes with simple, user-friendly control software, which is installed on a tablet device, for measuring and tracking frequencies. The software has a simple quick-search function to rapidly measure a frequency. The specific settings and search parameters can be stored in a user profile. That way, a user can define different search ranges and can easily switch between different frequencies.

In addition, the system tracks and logs the measured frequency over time, writing data to internal storage. The system can be configured with a detachable head, mounted to the base unit. The much smaller head can also be connected using a flexible SMA cable to reach remote locations.

Technical Specifications

  • Frequency Range: 26 GHz – 1 THz (standard waveguide bands)
  • Maximum Input Power: + 20 dBm (100 mW), continuous wave
  • Minimum Signal Sensitivity: 0 dBm (1 mW; at 200 GHz)
  • Accuracy: +/- 0.007 * n GHz (n = harmonic number)
  • Typical LO Frequency Range: 8 – 20 GHz
  • System Size (W x H x D): 10.2 x 5.1 x 11.8 (inch), 26 x 13 x 30 (cm)
  • System Weight: 9.4 lbs (4.3 kg)
  • Input Power: 110 – 220 V (50/60 Hz)

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Have a question?

If you have questions about our instrumentation or how we can help you, please contact us.