Nagarajan V. et al., EPR detected polarization transfer between Gd3+ and protons at low temperature and 3.3 T: The first step of dynamic nuclear polarization, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 132, 214504
Electron-electron double resonance pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 95 GHz (3.3 T) is used to follow the dynamics of the electron spin polarization during the first stages of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids. The experiments were performed on a frozen solution of Gd+3 (S=7/2) in water/glycerol. Focusing on the central |−1/2>→|+1/2> transition we measured the polarization transfer from the Gd3+ electron spin to the adjacent 1H protons.
The dependence of the echo detected EPR signal on the length of the microwave irradiation at the EPR “forbidden” transition corresponding to an electron and a proton spin flip is measured for different powers, showing dynamics on the microsecond to millisecond time scales. A theoretical model based on the spin density matrix formalism is suggested to account for this dynamics. The central transition of the Gd3+ ion is considered as an effective S=1/2 system and is coupled to 1H (I=1/2) nuclei. Simulations based on a single electron-single nucleus four level system are shown to deviate from the experimental results and an alternative approach taking into account the more realistic multinuclei picture is shown to agree qualitatively with the experiments.