Category Archives: 13C

Nitroxide Derivatives for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Liquids: The Role of Rotational Diffusion #DNPNMR

Levien, M., M. Hiller, I. Tkach, M. Bennati, and T. Orlando. “Nitroxide Derivatives for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Liquids: The Role of Rotational Diffusion.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 11, no. 5 (March 5, 2020): 1629–35.

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c00270

Polarization transfer efficiency in liquid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) depends on the interaction between polarizing agents (PAs) and target nuclei modulated by molecular motions. We show how translational and rotational diffusion differently affect the DNP efficiency. These contributions were disentangled by measuring 1HDNP enhancements of toluene and chloroform doped with nitroxide derivatives at 0.34 T as a function of either the temperature or the size of the PA. The results were employed to analyze 13C-DNP data at higher fields, where the polarization transfer is also driven by the Fermi contact interaction. In this case, bulky nitroxide PAs perform better than the small TEMPONE radical due to structural fluctuations of the ring conformation. These findings will help in designing PAs with features specifically optimized for liquid-state DNP at various magnetic fields.

Direct dynamic nuclear polarization of 15N and 13C spins at 14.1 T using a trityl radical and magic angle spinning #DNPNMR

Wang, Xiaoling, Bethany G. Caulkins, Gwladys Riviere, Leonard J. Mueller, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, and Joanna R. Long. “Direct Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of 15N and 13C Spins at 14.1 T Using a Trityl Radical and Magic Angle Spinning.” Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, April 2019, S0926204019300177.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssnmr.2019.03.009

We investigate solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization of 13C and 15N nuclei using monoradical trityl OX063 as a polarizing agent in a magnetic field of 14.1 T with magic angle spinning at ~100 K. We monitored the field dependence of direct 13C and 15N polarization for frozen [13C, 15N] urea and achieved maximum absolute enhancement factors of 240 and 470, respectively. The field profiles are consistent with polarization of 15N spins via either the solid effect or the cross effect, and polarization of 13C spins via a combination of cross effect and solid effect. For microcrystalline, 15Nenriched tryptophan synthase sample containing trityl radical, a 1500-fold increase in 15N signal was observed under microwave irradiation. These results show the promise of trityl radicals and their derivatives for direct polarization of low gamma, spin-½ nuclei at high magnetic fields and suggest a novel approach for selectively polarizing specific moieties or for polarizing systems which have low levels of protonation.

Structural Elucidation of Amorphous Photocatalytic Polymers from Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid State NMR #DNPNMR

Brownbill, Nick J., Reiner Sebastian Sprick, Baltasar Bonillo, Shane Pawsey, Fabien Aussenac, Alistair J. Fielding, Andrew I. Cooper, and Frédéric Blanc. “Structural Elucidation of Amorphous Photocatalytic Polymers from Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid State NMR.” Macromolecules 51, no. 8 (April 24, 2018): 3088–96. 

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.7b02544

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers a recent approach to dramatically enhance NMR signals and has enabled detailed structural information to be obtained in a series of amorphous photocatalytic copolymers of alternating pyrene and benzene monomer units, the structures of which cannot be reliably established by other spectroscopic or analytical techniques. Large 13C cross-polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) signal enhancements were obtained at high magnetic fields (9.4− 14.1 T) and low temperature (110−120 K), permitting the acquisition of a 13C INADEQUATE spectrum at natural abundance and facilitating complete spectral assignments, including when small amounts of specific monomers are present. The high 13C signal-to-noise ratios obtained are harnessed to record quantitative multiple contact CP NMR data, used to determine the polymers’ composition. This correlates well with the putative pyrene:benzene stoichiometry from the monomer feed ratio, enabling their structures to be understood.

Nanodiamond as a New Hyperpolarizing Agent and Its 13C MRS #DNPNMR

Dutta, Prasanta, Gary V. Martinez, and Robert J. Gillies. “Nanodiamond as a New Hyperpolarizing Agent and Its 13C MRS.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5, no. 3 (February 6, 2014): 597–600.

https://doi.org/10.1021/jz402659t

In this work, we have hyperpolarized carbonaceous nanoparticles (D ≈ 10 nm), that is, “nanodiamonds”, with 1.1% 13C (natural abundance) using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The polarization buildup curve showed a signal enhancement with relative intensity up to 4700 at 1.4 K and 100 mW microwave power. 13C magnetic resonance spectra (MRS) were obtained from the sample at 7 T, and the signal decayed with a T1 of 55 ± 3s. Notably, polarization was possible in the absence of added radical, consistent with previous results showing endogenous unpaired electrons in natural nanodiamonds. These likely contribute to the shorter T1’s compared to those of highly pure diamond. Despite the relatively short T1, these observations suggest that natural nanodiamonds may be useful for in vivo applications.

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR as a new tool to investigate the nature of organic compounds occluded in plant silica particles #DNPNMR

Masion, A., et al., Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR as a new tool to investigate the nature of organic compounds occluded in plant silica particles. Sci Rep, 2017. 7(1): p. 3430.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28611402

The determination of the chemical nature of the organic matter associated with phytoliths remains a challenge. This difficulty mainly stems from amounts of organic carbon (C) that are often well below the detection limit of traditional spectroscopic tools. Conventional solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is widely used to examine the nature and structure of organic molecules, but its inherent low sensitivity prohibits the observation of diluted samples. The recent advent of commercial microwave source in the terahertz range triggered a renewed interest in the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) technique to improve the signal to noise ratio of solid-state NMR experiments. With this technique, the 13C spectrum of a phytolith sample containing 0.1% w/w C was obtained overnight with sufficient quality to permit a semi-quantitative analysis of the organic matter, showing the presence of peptides and carbohydrates as predominant compounds. Considering the natural abundance of the 13C isotope, this experiment demonstrates that DNP NMR is sufficiently sensitive to observe spin systems present in amounts as low as a few tens of ppm.

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR as a new tool to investigate the nature of organic compounds occluded in plant silica particles #DNPNMR

Masion, A., et al., Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR as a new tool to investigate the nature of organic compounds occluded in plant silica particles. Sci Rep, 2017. 7(1): p. 3430.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28611402

The determination of the chemical nature of the organic matter associated with phytoliths remains a challenge. This difficulty mainly stems from amounts of organic carbon (C) that are often well below the detection limit of traditional spectroscopic tools. Conventional solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is widely used to examine the nature and structure of organic molecules, but its inherent low sensitivity prohibits the observation of diluted samples. The recent advent of commercial microwave source in the terahertz range triggered a renewed interest in the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) technique to improve the signal to noise ratio of solid-state NMR experiments. With this technique, the 13C spectrum of a phytolith sample containing 0.1% w/w C was obtained overnight with sufficient quality to permit a semi-quantitative analysis of the organic matter, showing the presence of peptides and carbohydrates as predominant compounds. Considering the natural abundance of the 13C isotope, this experiment demonstrates that DNP NMR is sufficiently sensitive to observe spin systems present in amounts as low as a few tens of ppm.

Directly vs Indirectly Enhanced 13C in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Magic Angle Spinning NMR Experiments of Nonionic Surfactant Systems

Hoffmann, M.M., et al., Directly vs Indirectly Enhanced 13C in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Magic Angle Spinning NMR Experiments of Nonionic Surfactant Systems. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2017. 121(4): p. 2418-2427.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b13087

A study of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in polyethylene glycol and related nonionic surfactants is presented. In these experiments, we found the surprising result that DNP enhanced 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra display two sets of resonances, one with broad and one with sharp spectral features that are 180° opposite in phase. These two sets indicate the presence of a direct polarization transfer channel as expected for 13C MAS experiments, and a second unexpected indirect polarization transfer channel. Plots of DNP enhancements as a function of applied magnetic field for the two resonances show a superposition of two DNP enhancement profiles for AMUpol in the nonionic surfactant C10E6. The indirect polarization channel can be suppressed by application of a string of 1H 180° pulses during 13C DNP buildup. The presence of direct and indirect polarization channels is observed in a total of four different nonionic surfactants and with three different radicals, showing that these concurring polarization mechanisms are of general nature. Therefore, the presented findings, including the demonstration of how the indirect polarization channel can be suppressed, are of high importance for all future applications of direct 13C MAS DNP.

One-thousand-fold enhancement of high field liquid nuclear magnetic resonance signals at room temperature

Liu, G., et al., One-thousand-fold enhancement of high field liquid nuclear magnetic resonance signals at room temperature. Nat Chem, 2017. advance online publication.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2723

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a fundamental spectroscopic technique for the study of biological systems and materials, molecular imaging and the analysis of small molecules. It detects interactions at very low energies and is thus non-invasive and applicable to a variety of targets, including animals and humans. However, one of its most severe limitations is its low sensitivity, which stems from the small interaction energies involved. Here, we report that dynamic nuclear polarization in liquid solution and at room temperature can enhance the NMR signal of 13C nuclei by up to three orders of magnitude at magnetic fields of ∼3 T. The experiment can be repeated within seconds for signal averaging, without interfering with the sample magnetic homogeneity. The method is therefore compatible with the conditions required for high-resolution NMR. Enhancement of 13C signals on various organic compounds opens up new perspectives for dynamic nuclear polarization as a general tool to increase the sensitivity of liquid NMR.

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